Nonbuilding Structures and Nonstructural Components

Single Abstract

343202 - Extending Building Façade Performance Requirements for Blast: Hazard and Injury Assessment Investigations

Friday, April 20
9:30 AM - 10:30 AM
Location: 201C

Topic: This paper is intended to be grouped with others that are directed toward the use of performance-based analysis methods. Because that is not a specific topic already identified the next best fits are; Buildings, Structural Innovations – Analysis; and Restoration and Repair of Existing Structures
Target Audience: Engineers, Architects and Facility Owners.
Existing criteria for protection of occupants in government owned and/or occupied facilities in the US is largely based on estimates of damage limits for conventional façade structures and materials such as concrete, brick and concrete masonry, and glass. These damage limits are commonly based on extent of damage as a function of lateral deformation or ductility and the extent to which that deformation requires subsequent repairs or allows re-use. This approach works well for new construction where modest strength and mass increases can provide sufficient capacity at minimal cost so as to not exceed deformation limits. For existing buildings and historic facades, the approach can be onerous and inefficient, since retrofits to large sections of the façade may be required.
This paper describes initial efforts to define blast performance requirements for existing buildings in terms of occupant hazard based on injury potential rather than on deformation limits. Existing injury data and simplified façade failure and debris kinematics and analytics are used to relate applied blast load to actual occupant hazards. The approach provides information to building owners and stake holders that can provide much more efficient and cost effective extents for façade retrofits. The retrofits required are also more efficiently localized to lower levels and higher threat locations near the building.
The approach is currently being employed in assessments of existing structures throughout the US where the supplemental hazard information can assist owners and stakeholders in funding and schedule decisions for retrofits.

Kirk A. Marchand

Sr. Principal
Protection Engineering Consultants

Kirk A. Marchand is a Founding Senior Principal and former Managing Principal at Protection Engineering Consultants (PEC) with more than thirty five (35) years of blast and impact, ballistic and progressive collapse research and design experience. Kirk’s chief areas of expertise are in large and small scale blast and impact tests, counter-terrorism research and design, and organizational and project management.
Kirk started his career as an active duty US Army Corps of Engineers combat engineer battalion company grade and battalion grade officer and as a research project manager at the US ARMY Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC, then US Army Waterways Experiment Station).
Kirk spent time at LTV Aerospace and Defense in Grand Prairie, Texas developing warheads and performing warhead effects research.
Kirk worked and managed research projects in the Protective Structures and Engineering Dynamics group and division at Southwest Research Institute for 15 years. At SwRI, Mr. Marchand led programs concerning the vulnerability analysis of protective structures and critical civilian facilities.
At Applied Research Associates (ARA) Kirk managed the South Texas Division.
At Walter P. Moore and Associates, Kirk was Principal and Director of Secure Design Services, where he directed and performed project work supporting man-made hazard protection for the built environment.
From 2014 to 2016, Mr. Marchand has served as CEO for Runway Safe LLC, a company that has commercialized the EMAS (Engineered Materials Arresting System) that PEC developed as a result of research performed for the TRB/ACRP (Transportation Research Board/Airport Cooperative Research Program).


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Protection Engineering Consultants


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Michalis Hadjioannou

Senior Associate Engineer/Structural Analyst
Protection Engineering Consultants

Dr. Hadjioannou is a Senior Associate Engineer at Protection Engineering Consultants (PEC) since 2015. He holds a Civil Engineering degree with focus in Structural Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens, Greece and holds a Master's and PhD degree from The University of Texas at Austin. His PhD research involved large-scale testing of steel-concrete composite floor systems under column loss scenarios to estimate their ultimate collapse load. Later he did high-fidelity numerical modelling with LS-DYNA to develop numerical models that were validated against the experimental data. Since 2015 at PEC he is focusing on analysis of structures under extreme loading scenarios such as blast, impact, and earthquake. His work involved design of perforated steel mesh for the protection of nuclear power plants against wind-driven missiles, development of reduced modelling approaches for bolted and welded connections, special breakaway connections to minimize the damage of derailed trains when impacting wayside structures, etc.


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343202 - Extending Building Façade Performance Requirements for Blast: Hazard and Injury Assessment Investigations


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