Poster Topical Area: Maternal, Perinatal and Pediatric Nutrition
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 270
Objective: Measuring milk intake by breastfed (BF) infants is challenging as the amount of milk consumed at the breast is unknown. Dietary assessment instruments that rely on maternal report are often used to quantify breast milk (BM) volume. Currently, two standard calculations are used by researchers to estimate BM volume in young infants, which can be valuable to describe energy intake of BF infants. The first (C1) assumes a total daily volume for BF infants and subtracts other milk amounts. The second (C2) assumes separate volumes for each BM feeding and adds other milk amounts. These calculations are contradictory and may result in different estimated BM volumes. The objective of this research was to examine BM and total milk volume using two BM volume calculations in a group of infants at-risk of childhood obesity.
Methods: Data were from low-income Hispanic women and their 3-month-old infants (50% female) enrolled in Starting Early, a randomized controlled trial of a primary-care based child obesity prevention program. BM and total milk volumes were estimated from multiple-pass 24-hour recalls. We followed published guidelines to estimate volumes for each calculation. For C1, we assumed exclusively BF (EBF) infants consumed 780 mL BM/day. For partially BF (PBF) infants, we subtracted other milk (i.e. formula or expressed BM) from 780 mL. If other milk exceeded 780 mL, we calculated 3 fl oz for each BM feeding. For C2, we assumed infants consumed 125 mL for each BM feeding ≥10 min. For feedings
Results: Complete dietary data were available for 454 infants (170 EBF, 194 PBF, 90 exclusively bottle fed). C1 estimated a smaller volume of total milk than C2 in all infants (C1: 826 ± 145 mL vs C2: 1024 ± 248 mL, p<0.001). In addition, C1 estimated a smaller volume of BM than C2 for EBF (C1: 780 ± 0 mL vs C2: 1059 ± 253 mL, p<0.001) and PBF (C1: 454 ± 211 mL vs C2: 673 ± 305 mL, p<0.001) infants.
Conclusions: Standard calculations to quantify BM volume from 24-hour recall produce different estimates among infants at-risk of childhood obesity. Future studies are needed to validate which calculation more accurately estimates BM volume in young infants.
New York University
Hoboken, New Jersey