Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 800
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the most commonly consumed morning food (MF) patterns in US children/adolescents (2-18 years-old) and compare intakes of 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines' nutrients of concern (dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium), compared with children/adolescents who did not consume MF.
Methods: The analyses used data from of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. Cluster analysis was used to develop MF patterns of consumption. The USDA food coding system was used to define MF consumed all morning and before lunch. Clusters were developed using the percentage of calories consumed from various foods. The patterns identified were: 1) protein foods/breads/whole fruit/juices; 2) milk/higher-sugar (HS) ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC); 3) milk/pancakes/sauces; 4) eggs/protein foods/juice; 5) milk/HS and lower-sugar (LS) RTEC; 6) milk/sweet pastries; 7) milk/LS RTEC and 8) no MF.
Results: All MF patterns had greater calcium intake compared to the no MF pattern (p's<0.001). Children consuming milk/lower-sugar RTEC had the greatest calcium intake vs. no MF (1227±45 vs 810±21 mg/day, p<0.0001). Dietary fiber was higher in all clusters except eggs/protein foods/juice relative to those consuming no MF, ranging from 2.2 to 5.7 g/day more fiber when MF was consumed. Vitamin D (D2+D3) intake was higher in all MF patterns except sweet pastries vs. no MF (p's<0.001). Potassium intake was greater in all MF patterns, with all milk/RTEC patterns representing the largest increases vs. no MF (p's<0.0001). All MF patterns were associated with greater whole grain intake, except eggs/protein foods/juice and milk/sweet pastries. The largest whole grain intake was seen with LS RTEC/milk vs no MF (1.4±0.1 vs 0.5±0.1 oz eq; p<0.0001). Added sugar intake was greater in milk/sweet pastries vs no MF (23±1.5 vs 18±0.7 tsp eq; p=0.0002) and lower with LS RTEC/milk vs. no MF (13±1 vs 18±0.7 tsp eq; p=0.0002).
Conclusions: Consumption of MF patterns in US children/adolescents is associated with greater consumption of 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines' nutrients of concern and greater whole grain and typically lower added sugar intake. Avoiding MF may lead to nutrient and public health consequences.
VP, Nutrition Research & Regulatory Affairs
Paris, Ontario, Canada