Poster Topical Area: Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 455
Objectives: We sought to assess the effects of within-day protein intake distribution on changes in clinical fasting cardiometabolic health indicators and 24-h glucose control after 16 wk of dietary energy restriction and resistance training.
Methods: With the use of a randomized, parallel-design, 41 men and women (mean ± SEM: age: 35 ± 2 y; BMI: 31.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) performed resistance-type training 3 d/wk and consumed a controlled diet containing 750 kcal/d less than their estimated energy requirement for 16 wk. Subjects consumed 90 g protein/d (~1.0 g/kg/d) in either a skewed (10 g breakfast, 20 g lunch, 60 g dinner; n=20) or even (30 g breakfast, lunch, and dinner; n=21) distribution pattern. Fasting clinical cardiometabolic health indexes and 24-h continuous interstitial glucose concentrations were measured pre- and post-intervention. Glucose and insulin responses to a 12-h meal glucose tolerance test (12-h MGTT) were measured post-intervention.
Results: Within-day protein distribution did not affect any cardiometabolic health or glucose control outcomes. Among all subjects, over time, body mass decreased by ~8% and whole body strength increased by ~20%. Fasting serum glucose (LSmean ± SE; -2.9 ± 1.6 mg/dL), insulin (-5.5 ± 1.2 µIU/mL), total cholesterol (-21 ± 4 mg/dL), HDL (-3 ± 1 mg/dL), LDL (-13 ± 3 mg/dL), and triglyceride (-26 ± 7 mg/dL) concentrations each decreased (main effect of time, P < 0.05). 24-h continuous interstitial glucose concentration average (-7.6 ± 2.6 mg/dL), variability (-2.7 ± 1 mg/dL), peak (-14 ± 4 mg/dL), fluctuation (peak-minimum; -13 ± 3 mg/dL), and time spent above 100 mg/dL (-242 ± 87 min/d) each decreased (main effects of time, P < 0.05). There was no effect of protein distribution on post-intervention 24-h continuous interstitial glucose outcomes and 12-h MGTT glucose and insulin positive incremental areas under the curve.
Conclusions: The effectiveness of dietary energy restriction combined with resistance training to improve clinical indices of cardiometabolic health and daily glucose control is not influenced by the within-day distribution of protein.
Pork Checkoff; American Egg Board-Egg Nutrition Center; National Dairy Council; Beef Checkoff; and the National Institutes of Health, Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, Clinical Research Center, Grant # UL1TR001108.