Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology

Location: Hall D

Poster Board Number: 770

P20-056 - Identification of Urinary Biomarkers of Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using Ionomics

Sunday, Jun 10
8:00 AM – 6:00 PM


Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake inversely correlates with risk of many chronic diseases; however, the ability to assess F&V intake is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers. Identification of such biomarkers would enhance current dietary assessment methods and provide a quantifiable, non-biased measurement to evaluate compliance in epidemiologic studies and monitor nutrition education programs. Here, we conducted a two arm, fully controlled feeding study to identify urinary ions that are predictive of dietary F&V intake. Using ICP-MS, we explored ion profiles useful in distinguishing between high and low F&V diets.


We enrolled 21 male and female volunteers between 18-65 years old with BMI's between 20-29.9. Enrolled participants completed 2 ASA24 dietary recalls and provided baseline urine samples prior to the intervention. All participants consumed a low F&V lead-in diet for 4 days, followed by a second urine collection. Participants were then assigned to either high F&V intake with low diversity, or high F&V intake with high diversity. Intervention diets were followed for 4 days. On day 9 of the intervention, participants provided a third pooled urine sample. Treatment meals were provided by CSU Dining Services using pre-designed menus that varied in amount and diversity of F&V. Dietary compliance was determined using pre and post meal photos. Urinary concentrations of 26 ions and minerals were analyzed via ICP-MS. Values were evaluated using internal and external standards and normalized to urinary creatinine levels.


All participants that provided baseline samples completed the study. Dietary compliance, as evidenced by meal photos was ~92.6%. Preliminary ICP-MS data suggest that selenium, sodium, calcium and aluminum are reduced with high F&V diet relative to low F&V lead-in. Baseline ion profiles, combined with ASA24 data, will be used to test the discriminatory ability of identified biomarkers and future analyses will be directed at determining if ion profiles can distinguish different levels of dietary botanical diversity.


Urinary concentrations of several ions differed with varying levels of F&V intake, suggesting that this is a suitable low-cost platform for dietary biomarker identification.

Funding Source: Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station

CoAuthors: Jenae Curley – Colorado State University; Brittney Sly, MPH, RDN – Colorado State University ; Wen Zhou – Colorado State University ; Jaqueline Chaparro – Colorado State University ; Corey Broeckling – Colorado State University ; Tiffany Weir, PhD – Colorado State University

Natalie Goodwin

Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado