Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 768
Background Apples contain phytochemicals that have been connected to cardiovascular health.
Objective To summarize research related to apple consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Design Medline, Cochrane Central, and CAB databases were searched between 1960 through October 2016 for English language publications on apple intake and CVD risk factors. Studies in adults (healthy or with CVD risk factors [obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension at baseline]) of all designs that quantified apple intake were included. CVD risk factors of interest included serum lipids, blood pressure, body weight, blood glucose, inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes of CVD. The minimum duration of follow-up for blood lipid outcomes was 3 weeks.
Results The search resulted in 7 Randomized Control Trials (RCTs, 471 subjects) and 13 eligible observational articles (13 cohorts). All trials reported quantitative data for at least one outcome of interest, and 5 reported qualitative data for other outcomes. Ten observational studies reported quantitative data and 3 qualitative data. One trial and 8 cohorts reported exposure of apple combined with pear.
Apple intake significantly decreased body mass index (BMI, 3 studies, net change −0.39 mg/dL, 95% CI −0.59, -0.20). There was no significant change in body weight, LDL, total cholesterol, HDL or triglycerides. In observational studies apple intake showed a decreased association with coronary heart disease (4 cohorts, summary Risk Ratio [RR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.73, 0.98), cerebrovascular disease (3 cohorts, net change 0.84, 95% CI 0.72, 0.99), cardiovascular death (3 studies, summary RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62, 0.92), diabetes (4 studies, summary RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66, 0.89), and all-cause mortality (4 studies, summary RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74, 0.92). No significant association was found between apple intake and risk of cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage.
Conclusion RCTs of apple intake did not show a statistically significant change in many risk factors for CVD. Observational studies found a decreased risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality and apple intake. Apple consumption may be of benefit to CVD prevention.