Poster Topical Area: Community and Public Health Nutrition
Poster Board Number: 106
A shift in eating behavior has occurred over the past 40 years with an increased prevalence of skipping breakfast in combination with eating later in the day. Both behaviors have been associated with obesity-related health outcomes. No studies have examined the association between the timing of meals, particularly before lunch, and diet quality among highly food-insecure populations. The hypotheses of this study were that breakfast consumption and greater percent of total energy intake before noon would associate with higher diet quality among U.S. Midwestern adult emergency food pantry clients (n=452).
English speaking food pantry clients ≥ 18 years (or ≥ 19 years in Nebraska) were recruited from 24 food pantries in rural, high-poverty counties within Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and South Dakota. Participants were interviewed at the food pantry regarding their characteristics and dietary data were obtained using the Automated Self-Administered 24 Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24). Two days later, a second ASA24 was self-completed or collected by phone interview. Breakfast skippers were classified when neither dietary recall included a self-reported breakfast providing at least 300 kcal between 4 and 10 a.m., breakfast consumers classed all other participants. The percent of total energy intake from midnight to 12:00 p.m. was calculated for each recall day and averaged. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) was calculated as a total score from 0-100 with a higher score indicating better diet quality. The outcomes, HEI-2010 total and component scores, were separately analyzed with each indicator, breakfast skipping and percent of total energy before 12:00 p.m., using adjusted multiple linear regression.
Breakfast consumers had an estimated 2.8 point higher HEI-2010 total score, compared with breakfast skippers (P = 0.04). Consuming a higher percent of total energy before noon was associated with higher HEI-2010 total score (P = 0.02).
Consuming breakfast regularly and shifting a higher proportion of energy consumption before noon may be a potential intervention to improve diet quality among highly food-insecure U.S. Midwestern food pantry clients.
This project is supported by the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative competitive grant no. 2013-69004-20401 of the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.
West Lafayette, Indiana