Poster Topical Area: Community and Public Health Nutrition
Poster Board Number: 157
Objectives: Ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition may contribute to greater osteoporotic risk in certain populations. South Asian Indians (SAI) have lower BMD and muscle mass, but higher fat mass compared to Caucasian (CAU) counterparts. The objective of the current study was to compare differences in BMD and understand the relationship between body composition and BMD in healthy SAI and CAU males residing in the United States
Methods: Healthy males who identified themselves as SAI or CAU between 20-50 years were eligible for this study. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare) was used for measuring BMD, Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and total boy fat and lean mass. BMD and BMC were measured at four skeletal sites: lumbar spine (LS) (L2 -L4), dual femoral neck, 33% radius of the non-dominant forearm and whole body (WB). Total body fat and lean mass were reported from the WB scan by DXA. T tests and Mann Whitney U test were used to report the mean differences between groups for data normal distributed, and non-normal variables, respectively. Pearson and spearman correlations used to test the association between BMD and body composition.
Results: Sixteen SAIs and 16 CAU men, completed the study. There was no significant difference between groups in age - 27.20 ± 5.52 and 28.31± 7.51 years and BMI - 26.24 ± 4.65 and 27.89 ± 1.37 kg/m2 . Total lean mass however was lower in SAI compared CAU (p=0.013). BMD at WB (p=0.029) and BMC at the LS, femoral neck, 33% radius and WB (p<0.05) was lower in SAI compared to CAU. In all men, lean mass was correlated positively with BMD at WB, LS and 33% radius (p<0.05). In SAI males, lean mass had positive correlation with BMD at WB (r = 0.76) and 33% radius (r = 0.63) at p<0.05). Neither lean mass nor fat mass correlated with BMD at any site in CAU males (all p˃0.05).
Conclusion: SAI men have lower lean mass, WB-BMD and lower BMC at different skeletal sites compared to age and BMI matched CAU. Furthermore a higher lean mass showed positive association with BMD at different skeletal sites in all men and specifically in the SAI men. These results suggest that interventions should be specifically targeted towards improving and /or preserving lean mass for improving osteoporosis outcomes in South Asian Men.