Poster Topical Area: Global Nutrition

Location: Hall D

Poster Board Number: 550

P12-015 - African Adansonia digitata L. (baobab) modifies provitamin A carotenoid delivery from blended millet products as assessed by a coupled in-vitro digestion Caco-2 cell model

Monday, Jun 11
8:00 AM – 3:00 PM


While fortification of staple cereal products using native plant materials is a current strategy to address iron and Vitamin A(VA) deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa, limited information exists on provitamin A carotenoids (proVAC) bioavailability from such fortified products. The current study investigates the impact of incorporating mineral-dense plant materials on the bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake of proVAC within a staple cereal matrix.


Formulations of native fruit/vegetable-millet blend were screened for proVAC content and bioaccessbility and subsequent intestinal uptake were evaluated using a coupled in vitro digestion Caco-2 cell model. Instant millet porridges were prepared with the following proportions of instant millet flour and plant materials to deliver ~25% of the RDA for VA and Fe: decorticated, extruded millet (Senegalese Souna var.) at 40-60%, freeze-dried proVAC-rich plants (1:1, dried carrot and mango blend) at 30%, and dried iron and ascorbic acid rich Adansonia digitata (baobab) at 0-25%. Porridges were prepared with boiled water (100°C), with an addition of 5% sunflower oil prior to introduction to an in- vitro digestion model.


Total proVAC concentrations in porridge samples ranged from 3666.9±45.3 - 3694.1±26.9 ug/g of fresh weight. While there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in proVAC bioaccessibility from porridge formulations with 5 and 15% baobab (18.8±2.0 and 18.8±2.0% respectively) as compared to control containing no mineral-rich plant (23.8 ± 1.2%). However, 25% baobab resulted in a significant decrease in bioaccessibility of proVAC (13.3±1.6%). Despite these differences in bioaccessibility, intestinal uptake efficiency (%) by Caco-2 cells tended to be higher with formulation containing 25% baobab where uptake efficiency of α-carotene reached 3.6 ± 0.6% and β-carotene 4.5 ± 0.7% over 6hr corresponding to a 9.4 and 19.4% increase of α- and β-carotene accumulation efficiency respectively compared to control.


These results suggest the inclusion of mineral-dense plant materials such as baobab may modulate bioavailability of proVAC by impacting bioaccessibility and intestinal transport at higher usage rates.

Funding Source:

Funding provided by the USAID Food Processing & Post Harvest Innovation Lab(FPLAID-0AA-L-14-00003) and Sorghum & Millet Innovation Lab(SMILAID-0AA-A-13-00047)

CoAuthors: Cheikh Ndiaye – Purdue University; Mario Ferruzzi – North Carolina State University; Bruce Hamaker – Purdue University

Hawi A. Debelo

Purdue University
Kannapolis, North Carolina