Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 790
Objectives: Eating patterns have been linked to obesity, an established risk factor for hypertension. However, their contribution to hypertension is poorly understood and studies examining the effects of meal and snack frequency and the temporal distribution of eating occasions (EO) across the day (e.g. temporal eating patterns) are rare. This study aimed to examine associations of frequency of meals, snacks and all EO, and temporal eating patterns, with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension.
Methods: A secondary analysis of dietary data collected via two 24-hour recalls during the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=4482 adults, ≥19 years) was conducted. Frequencies of all EO, meals and snacks were calculated. Temporal eating patterns were determined using latent class analysis. Multivariate regression models assessed associations of eating patterns with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and hypertension prevalence.
Results: Among men, a higher snack frequency was inversely associated with DBP (β=-0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.12, -0.07) and hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98) after adjustment for covariates and BMI. However, these associations disappeared after additional adjustment for total energy intake and overall diet quality. Among women, a temporal eating pattern characterised by a "later lunch" meal was associated with SBP (β=2.45, 95% CI: 0.05, 4.84), DBP (β=1.69, 95% CI: 0.25, 3.13) and hypertension (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.22), when compared to a "conventional" eating pattern.
Conclusions: In this study, an inverse association found between snack frequency and BP among men disappeared after adjustment for dietary factors. A "later lunch" temporal eating pattern, compared to a "conventional pattern", was also associated with higher BP in women. Future research is needed to understand the relationship and potential mechanistic pathways between eating patterns and BP.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Burwood, Victoria, Australia