Poster Topical Area: Maternal, Perinatal and Pediatric Nutrition
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 367
Objective: Beginning with the 2020-2025 edition, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include dietary recommendations for children 0-24 months. What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) collects dietary intake on a nationally representative sample of all individuals; however, data release and analysis have mainly focused on Americans ages 2 and above.
Methods: This research reports nutrient and food intakes for children from birth to 24 months. Using day one dietary data from WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2014 nutrient intakes were estimated for children less than 24 months (n=1139). The 5-step USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method was used to collect a 24-hour recall from a proxy knowledgeable about the child's intake. Breast milk (BM), not quantified during the recall, was reported by 22% of the sample and includes individuals who reported any breast milk on the recall day. For this research, BM volumes were assigned using assumptions based on amounts typically consumed per day for infants (0-11.9 months) or per breastfeeding occasion for toddlers (12-23.9 months).
Results: Mean daily energy ± SE intake for younger infants < 6 months (n=333) was 613 ± 8 kcal. Breast milk, formula/other milk (FM) and other foods (OF) contributed 214± 20 kcal, 377 ± 23 kcal and 22± 4 kcal, respectively to daily energy. Energy intake increased to 802 ± 21 kcal/d for older infants 6-11.9 months (n=381); BM, FM and OF contributed 94 ± 14 kcal, 405 ± 20 kcal and 303 ± 16 kcal, respectively to daily energy. Older infants who were breastfed (n=80) reported less daily energy from OF compared to those who were not breast-fed (230 ± 25 vs 329 ± 20 kcal). Overall, for older infants, baby food items were consumed by 88%; non-baby food snacks and sweets were consumed by 22%. Total daily energy intake for toddlers was 1193 ± 26 kcal of which 880 ± 22 came from other foods. Snacks and sweets, consumed by 85% of toddlers, contributed 12% to total daily energy. Juice and sweetened beverages, consumed by 71%, contributed 8% to total energy.
Conclusions: This research adds to literature describing the dietary intakes of U.S. infants and toddlers and highlights the consumption of snacks and sweets at an early age.
USDA, Agricultural Research Service