Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 821
Objective: Determine associations between salad reporting status (reporter/nonreporter) and total daily intake of carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and flavonoid classes (anthocyanidins, catechins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones).
Methods: One day of dietary intake data from 10,998 adults age 20 years and over participating in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010 was analyzed. Individuals who consumed raw vegetable-based salads on the intake day were designated as salad reporters. Adjusted estimates of carotenoids and flavonoids by salad reporting status were calculated via regression analyses. T-tests determined differences between reporters and nonreporters.
Results: Twenty-one percent of adults ate salad on the intake day. Among reporters, salads' contributions to total daily intakes of carotenoids ranged from 12% (β-cryptoxanthin) to 60% (lutein+zeaxanthin); for flavonoids, they ranged from <1% (catechins) to 48% (flavones). Compared to nonreporters, salad reporters had higher intakes of of α- and β-carotene and lutein+zeaxanthin (p<0.001); in fact, intakes of β-carotene and lutein+zeaxanthin by reporters were more than double those by nonreporters. Intakes of most flavonoid classes were also higher among salad reporters than nonreporters: Anthocyanidins were 69% higher; flavanones, 27%; flavones, 89%; flavonols, 31%; and isoflavones, 62%.
Conclusions: Not only is salad reporting associated with higher intake of many of the carotenoids and flavonoid classes examined, but for some, namely α- and β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, flavones, and flavonols, the magnitude of the observed differences is fairly comparable to the contributions from salads. This demonstrates that, among adults, reporters' higher total daily intake of these carotenoids and flavonoids can be accounted for by their salad consumption. If these findings hold true within individuals in longer-term research, increasing salad intake seems likely to be an effective strategy for increasing intake of these beneficial bioactive compounds.
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, ARS, USDA