Poster Topical Area: Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 413
Objectives: Different dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence from South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking.
Methods: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with two distinct dietary patterns among Asian Indians living in the US. We also examined cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers. We used cross-sectional data from 150 Asian Indians, aged 45-79 years, in the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) pilot study. Metabolites were measured in fasting serum samples. Usual diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used principal components analysis to derive dietary and metabolomic patterns. We used adjusted general linear regression models to examine associations between dietary patterns, metabolite patterns, and cardiometabolic risk markers.
Results: We observed two major metabolomic patterns - a medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines pattern (metabolite pattern 1) and a branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and short-chain acylcarnitines pattern (metabolite pattern 2). In both the overall population and in a sub-sample of participants without type 2 diabetes (n=105), a "Western/non-vegetarian" diet pattern was significantly and positively associated with metabolite pattern 2 (Table). Higher metabolomic pattern 2 scores were adversely associated with measures of glycemia (including measures of fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h insulin, insulin sensitivity index, insulin resistance), total adiponectin, lipid measures (including total cholesterol and triglycerides), and a radiographic measure of hepatic fat (liver-spleen attenuation).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a "Western/non-vegetarian" dietary pattern is associated with a metabolomic profile linked with an adverse cardiometabolic profile. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden should focus on consuming a healthy plant-based diet.
The MASALA pilot study was funded by grant no. K23 HL080026, the University of California, San Francisco, Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee, and by National Institutes of Health/National Center for Research Resources University of California San Francisco-Clinical and Translational Science Institute grant no. UL1 RR024131. S.N. Bhupathiraju is supported by a career development award from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (K01 DK107804). J.R. Bain was supported by NIDDK (P01 DK058398) and the National Institute on Aging (P30 AG028716).
Instructor in Medicine
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School