Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 832
Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of rickets in children and, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Additionally, vitamin D modulates cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) identified vitamin D as a nutrient of public health concern. Therefore, DGA encourages higher intake of food sources of vitamin D, such as milk. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to determine the association of milk consumption and vitamin D status in the US population and to examine if milk consumers have better vitamin D status as compared to non-consumers.
Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010 were used to perform the current work. Day 1 dietary data were used with exclusions for unreliable data, age <2, pregnant or lactating females, missing serum vitamin D data, missing PIR or missing BMI. Separate analyses were conducted for the following age groups (gender combined): 2-8, 9-18, 19+, and 71+ yrs. Covariates used in all linear and logistic regressions were: age, gender, ethnicity, poverty income ratio and BMI or BMI Z-score when the population being analyzed was < 19 yrs. SAS 9.2 and SUDAAN 11 were used for all calculations. NHANES survey weights, strata and primary sampling units were used in all analyses. Significance was set at P<0.01. Milk consumption was determined as the sum of whole, reduced fat, low-fat and non-fat milks.
Results: Mean milk intake for gender combined children and adults were as follows: 1.71 cup eq for 2-8 yrs (n=4,061); 1.77 cup eq for 9-18 yrs (n=8,700); 1.37 cup eq for 19+ yrs (n=20,911), and; 1.12 cup eq for 71+ yrs (n=3,454). Milk consumption was associated with significantly higher probability of meeting recommended serum vitamin D (> 50 nmol/L) levels among all age groups (ORs: 1.42; 1.31; 1.31; and 1.35, respectively). Likewise, there was significant linear association between milk consumption and serum vitamin D status among all age groups. Subjects with milk consumption >2 cup eq (2-8 yrs), >1.99 cup eq (9-18 yrs), >1.44 cup eq (19+ yrs), and >1.2 cup eq (71+ yrs) had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels compared to non-consumers (P<0.0001).
Conclusions: The results from this study show that increasing milk intake may be an effective strategy to improve the vitamin D status of the US population, reinforcing DGA recommendations.
Director of Nutrition Research
National Dairy Council
Melrose Park, Illinois