Poster Topical Area: Maternal, Perinatal and Pediatric Nutrition

Location: Hall D

Poster Board Number: 323

P13-065 - Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016: Food sources of energy and key nutrients in the diets of infants and young children in the U.S.

Sunday, Jun 10
8:00 AM – 6:00 PM


This study describes the food sources of energy and key nutrients among infants, toddlers and preschool children from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers study (FITS) 2016.


FITS 2016 is a cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children aged 0-3.9 y in the US. Demographic and feeding practices data were collected using a recruitment questionnaire (n=4380). One 24-h dietary recall collected data on food, beverage and supplement intake (n=3235). One-day food intakes were used to calculate the percent contribution of foods and beverages from 8 food groups to total energy and nutrient intakes, with a focus on nutrients consumed in excessive or inadequate amounts.


Food sources of energy: Breastmilk and infant formula supplied 93% of total energy intake (TEI) among 0-5.9 mo olds and 59% TEI among 6-11.9 mo olds. Among children 12-47.9 mo of age, the top source of dietary energy was cow's milk (18% TEI 12-23.9 mo and 11% TEI 24-47.9 mo); second were meats with chicken/turkey the most common (9% TEI; 12-23.9 mo and 10% TEI 24-47.9 mo); third was fruit (7% TEI; 12-23.9 mo and 7% TEI 24-47.9 mo). Non-meat protein sources, such as eggs and egg dishes, cheese, yogurt and peanut butter were ranked fourth for 12-23.9 mo olds (5% TEI) and fifth for 24-47.9 mo olds (6% TEI). Sweet bakery items and 100% fruit juice provided 4% TEI respectively among 12-23.9 mo olds. Sweet bakery contributed 6% TEI and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) contributed 4% TEI in >24 mo olds.

Major foods contributing key nutrients: Milks, all types, were the top source of fat among 0-23.9 mo olds, and the top source of potassium, saturated fat and vitamin D among 0-47.9 mo olds. Fruits, all types, were the top sources of fiber (6-47.9 mo) and the 2nd top source of potassium (12-47.9 mo). Infant cereal was the top food source of iron among 0-5.9 mo and 6-11.9 mo infants. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was the top source of iron among 12-47.9 mo children. Non-meat protein sources were the top sources of vitamin E and meats were the top sources of sodium among 12-47.9 mo olds. SSBs were the top sources of added sugars followed by sweet bakery items among 12-47.9 mo olds.


These findings are of importance to future dietary guidelines for the 0-24mo population and indicate opportunities to improve caregiver food choice and food product improvement.

Funding Source:

Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland

Emma F. Jacquier

Country Lead Scientist
Nestle Research Center, Switzerland
Florham Park, New Jersey