Poster Topical Area: Aging and Chronic Disease
Poster Board Number: 23
Objectives: The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to increase in the United States, coinciding with increases in obesity. There is a sparsity of studies examining the relationship between high protein diets and body composition in individuals with prediabetes and T2D. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship of dietary protein intake and body composition in overweight/obese individuals with pre-diabetes and T2D with respect to factors associated with glycemic control.
Methods: Forty-nine overweight or obese (BMI 25 kg/m2 to 40 kg/m2) men and women, ages of 45 and 75 years, with prediabetes or T2D (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%) were enrolled. Dietary intake was determined using three-day food records and participants were categorized based on their protein intake: high protein (≥ 1.0 g protein/kg/bw) or normal protein (0.8-1 g protein/kg/bw). Anthropometric assessments, fasted venous blood draw, and DXA scans were performed for assessment of body composition and blood biomarkers related to glycemic control.Independentsamples t-test were used for analysis using SPSS with significance set at P ≤ 0.05.
Results: Twenty-five participants were categorized as high protein consumers (age: 61 ±7, height: 164.2 ± 7.4 cm, body weight: 78.7 ± 15.0 kg, HbA1c: 6.0 ± 0.19%) and consumed an average of 97.2 ± 19.8 g protein daily, and 24 participants were categorized as normal protein consumers (age: 63 ± 7, height: 165.5 ± 6.9 cm, body weight: 87.8 ± 13.6 kg, HbA1c: 6.4 ± 0.22%) and consumed an average of 77.4 ± 9.9 g protein daily. Body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.02), hip circumference (P=0.01), android fat mass (P=0.02), gynoid fat mass(P=0.00), total fat mass (P=0.00) were significantly lower in the high protein group. There were no significant differences in lean mass or biomarkers related to glycemic control between groups.
Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that consumption of ≥ 1.0 g protein/kg/bw is associated with improved body composition without adverse effects on biomarkers associated with glycemic control in this population. Future research is needed to determine optimal protein intake for this population, as there are no currently established recommendations.
Florida State University