Poster Topical Area: Nutrient-Gene Interactions
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 432
Objectives: Ageing is associated with impaired muscle microvascular function and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial abundance/function (1-3). Cocoa flavanols and fish oil omega-3 fatty acids have emerged as two bio-active nutrients that may impact these facets (4-7), but the mechanisms by which they mediate these effects remain unclear. We evaluated changes in gene expression of these pathways in muscle from nutritional intervention studies in older adults. Methods: Real-time PCR was carried out on muscle from three studies (n=8 per group): (i) pre- and acute post-feed cocoa flavanols in older males (350mg; age: 72.6±1.6, BMI: 26.7±0.6), (ii) post 1 week daily cocoa flavanol supplementation in older males compared to non-cocoa control group (350 mg/d; age: 70.1±0.9, BMI: 25.7±0.6), and (iii) pre/post 2 and 6 weeks fish oil supplementation in older females (3.4 g/d; age: 64.4±0.8, BMI: 26.2±0.7). Genes were sub-categorized based on ontology and 2-way ANOVA was used to assess main effects of treatment. Sidak's tests determined changes in gene expression between groups. Results: There was a main effect of 6-weeks fish oil on angiogenesis gene expression, with increases in ANGPTL4, EPHB2 and CXCL10 (all P<0.05 vs. week 0). Analysis of mitochondrial and insulin signaling genes with 2- or 6-weeks fish oil showed no overall changes, however there was an increase in MTOR at 2 weeks, and PDK4 and IGF1 at 6 weeks (P<0.05 vs. week 0). Acute cocoa caused an overall change in angiogenesis genes, with significant increases in THBS1, ADAMTS1 and CXCL2 (P<0.05 vs. pre-cocoa). Finally, while 1-week cocoa did not result in an overall change in angiogenesis gene expression, there were increases in CTGF and FGF1 expression (P<0.05 vs. non-cocoa). Follow-up analysis showed significant increases in COL1A1, COL1A2 and COL3A1 (P<0.05 vs. non-cocoa) with cocoa treatment. Conclusions: There is evidence of changes in angiogenesis gene expression following 6-week fish oil supplementation, as well as increased anabolism-related genes, consistent with previous observations (8). Acute and daily cocoa supplementation for 1 week were associated with changes in angiogenesis genes, with ECM remodeling emerging as an area for further study.
University of Nottingham
Derby, England, United Kingdom