Poster Topical Area: Energy and Macronutrient Metabolism
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 541
Objectives: Despite recommendations on dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for cardiometabolic health, data on n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in relation to diabetes risk remain debated. Further, data are lacking in pregnant women. We prospectively investigated individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFAs throughout pregnancy in relation to risk of gestational diabetes (GDM).
Methods: Within theNICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort of 2,802 pregnancies, 107 GDM cases were ascertained by medical record review and matched to 214 non-GDM controls on age, race/ethnicity, and gestational week (GW) at blood collection. Individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFAs concentrations were measured by gas chromatography at GW 10-14, 15-26, 23-31, and 33-39. Conditional logistic regression was used, adjusting for major risk factors for GDM.
Results: Overall, n-3 PUFAs decreased slightly and n-6 PUFAs did not change appreciably across gestation. Among n-3 PUFAs, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n3) at GW 15-26 was significantly and inversely associated with subsequent risk of GDM [adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile (aORQ4-Q1) = 0.29 (95% CI 0.10, 0.85), P-for-trend= 0.048]. Among n-6 PUFAs, gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n6) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n6) at GW 10-14 were positively associated with risk of GDM [aORQ4-Q1 = 2.53 (1.12, 5.68) and 3.42 (1.37, 8.54), respectively, both P-for-trendQ4-Q1 = 0.30 (0.11, 0.83), P-for-trend = 0.015].Further, per standard deviation increase in PUFAs n-6/n-3 ratio at GW 15-26 was related to a 1.64-fold (1.09, 2.46) increased risk of GDM. Jointly, high levels of (≥ median) n-3 PUFAs and low levels of (< median) n-6 PUFAs were related to a 64% [aORQ4-Q1=0.36 (0.14, 0.95)] decreased risk of GDM, compared to women with low n-3 PUFAs levels and high n-6 PUFAs levels.
Conclusions: Our novel findings highlight the potentially important differential roles of individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and the PUFAs n-6/n-3 ratio during early to mid-pregnancy for GDM development. Our findings may underlie distinct nutritional, metabolic, or physiological processes and inform potential prevention strategies.
Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research