Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology

Location: Hall D

Poster Board Number: 764

P20-036 - Food sources of energy and nutrients in Filipino preschool and school-aged children

Monday, Jun 11
8:00 AM – 3:00 PM

Objectives: Dietary intake research shows that diets of children in the Philippine are insufficient in nutrients. The objective of this study is to understand food sources of energy and nutrients of Filipino children.

Methods:
Data were from8992 preschool and schoolchildren who participated in the Philippines 2013 National Nutrition Survey (3-5 y n=2427; 6-9 y n=3594; and 10-12 y n=2971). One 24-h dietary recall was collected for all children via face-to-face interviews with the child or the mother or guardian. All foods and beverages consumed during the previous day were recorded and processed with FNRI’s Dietary Evaluation System. All reported food and beverages were assigned to one of 80 food groups developed for the study. Percent contribution of each food group to energy and nutrient intakes was calculated. Only food groups that contributed more than 1 % of the daily nutrient intakes were reported.

Results:
Refined rice, sweet bakery products, bread, pork, sugar sweetened beverages and noodles were the top five sources of energy. Of them, refined rice alone provided 41- 55% of total energy. Consequently, in all age groups, refined rice was the number one source of a number of key nutrients including protein (27-37%), iron (21-31%), zinc (26-37%) and thiamine (22-35%), and in 6 to 12 y olds, rice was the number one source of riboflavin (16-19%). Among 3 to 5 y olds, milk contributed 7% of energy but its contribution became less than 1% by 10-12 y of age. Although fish ranked from 6thto 10th as a source of energy (3%), it was the primary source of vitamin B12 (60-66%) in all age groups and the number one source of calcium (20-23%) in 6 to 12 year olds. Sugar sweetened beverages (mostly fruit based) were the leading source of vitamin C (38- 40%). Top sources of vitamin A were local green leafy vegetables (23-37%), pork (6-11%) and fish (8-9%). Overall, vegetables and fruits did not contribute or contributed little to other nutrient intakes.

Conclusions:
This study showed that refined rice and other low nutrient-dense food items such as sweet bakery products were the core foods consumed by Filipino children. The fact that refined rice was the number one source of many key nutrients while milk, meats, fruits and vegetables were not important sources of key nutrients explained why many nutrients are lacking from the diets of this population.


CoAuthors: Mario Capanzana – Food and Nutrition Research Institute ; Marvin Toledo – Food and Nutrition Research Institute ; Liya Denney, PhD – NestlĂ© Institute of Nutritional Science

Imelda A. Agdeppa

Research Speacialist
Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology
Taguig City, National Capital Region, Philippines