Poster Topical Area: Nutritional Epidemiology
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 789
Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) may cause hepato- and nephro-toxicity, bone damage, reproductive dysfunction, and certain cancers. Although tobacco smoke is a major source of Cd exposure, diet is the most common source of exposure in everyday living. However, studies examining the major sources and total intake of dietary Cd in the US are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to estimate dietary Cd intake and document major food sources of Cd among the US population
Methods: A total of 12,523 individuals aged 2 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012 were included in a cross-sectional, population-based study. Cd intakes were estimated from 2 days of 24-hr dietary recall by matching intake data with the Cd database of the FDA’s Total Diet Study (TDS) 2006 through 2013.
Results: Average daily Cd intake of the US population was 4.6 µg/day and weekly intake (WI) of Cd per body weight (bw) was 0.5 µg/kg bw/week, which is 22% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 2.5 µg/kg bw/week. Greater Cd intakes were observed in older adults, males, supplement users, and those with higher BMI, poverty income ratio, and education level. Those with lowest Cd intakes were alcohol non-consumers compared with moderate or heavy alcohol consumers. The highest WI was observed in children aged 10 years and younger (38% of the TWI), underweight individuals (38% of the TWI), alcohol non-consumers (24% of the TWI), and supplement users (22% of the TWI). Major food groups contributing to Cd intake were cereals and bread (34%), leafy vegetables (20%), potatoes (11%), legumes and nuts (7%), and stem/root vegetables (6%). Individual foods with the greatest contribution were lettuce (14%), spaghetti (8%), bread (7%) and potatoes (6%). Children aged 10 years and younger had higher Cd intakes from cookies, peanuts and milk compared to other age groups, while lettuce and sunflower seeds contributed relatively less to total Cd. Lettuce was major Cd source for Caucasians, whereas tortillas were a significant source for Hispanics, and rice and spinach were major sources for other ethnic subgroups including Asians.
Conclusions: This study provides critical information on dietary Cd intake in the US and major food sources. These findings warrant further study on the health implications of Cd exposure.
University of Connecticut
Seoul, Seoul-t'ukpyolsi, Republic of Korea