Poster Topical Area: Maternal, Perinatal and Pediatric Nutrition
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 317
Objectives: While thiamin deficiency remains a public health concern in Cambodia, less is known regarding the status of other B-vitamins. We determined B-vitamin concentrations in milk (as a proxy for maternal and infant status) from Cambodian mothers previously enrolled in a thiamin-fortified fish sauce trial (NTC02221063), and also examined correlations among milk B-vitamins.
Methods: Pregnant women (18-45y, 23 ± 7 wk gestation at baseline) in Prey Veng province were randomized to receive control (0 g/L thiamin hydrochloride), low (2 g/L) or high (8 g/L) concentration thiamin-fortified fish sauce for ad libitum consumption for 6 mo. Human milk samples (n = 68; full expression) were collected between 3-28 wk postpartum and analyzed for vitamins B1 (free thiamin [T] + thiamin monophosphate [TMP] + thiamin pyrophosphate [TPP]) , B2 (riboflavin + flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]), B3 (nicotinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxal [PL] + pyridoxine [PN]), B7 (biotin), and B12.
Results: Only T (and B1) was affected by fortification, while TMP and TPP, and the other B-vitamins were not significantly different between treatment groups. Extrapolating to compare the milk B-vitamin concentrations to the Adequate Intake (AI) for infants 0-6mo, only 0 to 33.8% of the samples met these recommendation for all vitamins, including for B1 (B1: control = 0%, low = 24.0%, high = 10.5%). Strong significant correlations were found among vitamers of each vitamin (B1, B2, B6; r > 0.6). TPP revealed significant moderate associations (r > 0. 45) to B2, FAD, and PN but had no relationship to T, TMP, or B1. Other significant moderate associations (r > 0.3) were found for B3 (FAD, B12), and B5 (TPP, PL, B6).
Conclusions: Rural Cambodian women had low B-vitamin concentrations in milk, potentially putting their exclusively breast-feeding infants at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The selective effect of fortification may have caused the lack of associations between TPP and other B1 vitamers. TPP and FAD are both coenzymes in vital metabolic processes, while PL (which represents >95% of B6) represents a precursor of its respective coenzymatic form, which could explain their association in milk. Whether maternal dietary intakes of micronutrients affect these vitamin associations in milk remains to be determined.
UC Davis/ USDA/ARS-WHNRC