Poster Topical Area: Medical Nutrition
Location: Hall D
Poster Board Number: 634
OBJECTIVES: Almonds improve many cardiometabolic risk factors in diverse ethnic populations but these benefits have never been tested in Koreans. Thus, we aimed to examine the impact of almonds consumed as a snack within the context of a typical Korean diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese Korean adults. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover trial in a free-living setting with a 2-week run-in period, two 4-week intervention phases, and a 2-week washout period between interventions. Eighty four overweight/obese adults (11 M/73 F; 52.4 ± 0.6 year; 25.4 ± 0.2 kg/m2) consumed either 56 g of almonds or isocaloric cookies daily for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Mean % daily energy intake at baseline was 64.8, 21.3, and 14.9% from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively. Compared with the values from the pre-almond phase, the addition of almonds to habitual diet of the subjects decreased carbohydrate energy to 55.0%, increased fat to 32.0%, and maintained protein at 14.7%. Furthermore, almonds increased intake of MUFA by 192.3%, PUFA by 84.5%, vitamin E by 102.7%, and dietary fiber by 11.8%. Almonds increased total caloric intake by 210 kcal/day, but did not alter body weight, waist circumference, and body composition. As compared to the changes during the cookie phase, almonds decreased TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C by 5.5, 4.6, and 6.4%, respectively (P ≤0.05). Almonds increased plasma α-tocopherol by 8.5% (P ≤0.05) from the corresponding baseline and tended to increase its value as compared to cookies (P = 0.055). Neither almonds nor cookies altered plasma protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde or oxidized LDL. Almonds decreased post-intervention serum IL-10 concentration by 22.2%, as compared to cookies (P ≤0.05) and tended to reduce ICAM-1, IL-1β, and IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Almonds at 56 g/day consumed as a snack favorably modified typical Korean diet by increasing MUFA, PUFA, vitamin E, and dietary fiber intakes and decreasing % energy intake from carbohydrates. Almonds also enhanced plasma α-tocopherol status and decreased TC and LDL-C in overweight or obese Koreans. Thus, including almonds in typical Korean diet as a snack can help healthy overweight/obese adults improve nutritional status and reduce their risk for cardiometabolic diseases.