Category: Federal Forum Posters
Purpose: Heart attacks, stroke, and other preventable cardiovascular diseases (CVD) kill or seriously affect half of the population. The majority of the heart attacks and strokes that occur every year are caused by one or more cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high levels of blood lipids, physical inactivity and most of these CVD events are preventable if meaningful action is taken against these risk factors. The study is intended to assess the role of Risk Scores in indication of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and understanding the chances of increased risks for future cardiovascular disease events using Framingham Risk Score (FRS).
Methods: Prospective observational study conducted in medicine wards of tertiary-care hospital, India for six months. The newly admitted case charts diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes and geriatric patients. The required data was collected in form case sheets, treatment chart, lab master, the physical examination of the medication with patient is also verified. A prepared questionnaire to gather information of patient data collection was used to collect all the details like inpatient number, age, sex, social status, laboratory data, weight, height, Blood Pressure (BP), family history and therapeutic management. Then the data was introduced to FRS and MetS risk score calculators.FRS is designed to predict the risk of heart problems (including mortality) caused by coronary heart disease and non-fatal myocardial infarction for 10 years to come in the life of the individual, taking into account the presence or absence of risk factors score that was observed for each risk factor in the study sample. MetS is a modern day epidemic which predicts CVD mortality; the incidence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis and sudden death independent of other cardiovascular risks.
Results: After analysing 260 cases, they were compared with risk factors and risk score in patients using FRS classifying them according to their risk score. The percentage was 57 percent (n equals 147) as Low risk, 6 percent (n equals 15)as Moderate risk, 37 percent (n equals 95). MetS was Present in 65 percent (n equals 167) of the sample. Studying the risk for developing CVD event according to their Blood Pressure, out of 44 patients with Stage 2 BP, 50 percent (n equals 22) of the individuals had high risk score for developing CVD events. Obese individuals were 13 percent (n equals 33) among sample and all of them had high risk according to FRS. Non-Diabetic patients were having lower risk according to FRS than Diabetics with 70 percent (n equals 32) out of 46 Non-Diabetic individuals in the sample having low risk and 61 percent (n equals 129) out of 210 Diabetics having high risk. Studying the effect of Lipid profile, results showed the significance of the role of HDL in preventing cardiovascular events, 78percent (n equals 18) out of 23 individuals with HDL levels lower than 35mg/dL showed higher risk.
Conclusion: Framingham risk equations could stratify lifetime risk for CVD by the estimation of 10-year absolute risk of developing CVD. Despite its high prevalence, little is known of the prospective association of the MetS with cardiovascular and overall mortality. Early identification of the metabolic abnormalities and taking appropriate intervention would help in fighting the growing epidemic of disease. This research focused on the role of Risk Factors in predicting stage of the CVD and combine the results in order to come up with Therapeutic Regimen that can suit the majority of CVD patients based on a clinical trial.
Fatemeh Dehdari– Pharm.D. Intern, Karnataka College Of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India