Storm Surge and Tide
Storm surge is a major natural hazard to the construction and operation of infrastructure projects in shallow and gently sloping coastal areas such as the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. An extensive episodic event (storm) and continuous numerical modeling hindcast of atmospheric pressure, winds, storm surge, waves and currents for the entire Caspian Sea was undertaken for the period 1955 - 2016. The correlation between the return periods of wind magnitudes and surge levels was investigated. This study also investigated long-term MSL variability that is affected by both climatic factors and human intervention.