Rubble Mound Breakwaters
A two-pronged study involving the design, construction, and operation of two separate but closely related physical models was conducted to support the detailed design of the Living Breakwaters project located at the southern tip of Staten Island in Raritan Bay. One study focused on optimizing and verifying the breakwater design elements to ensure they were well adapted to typical and extreme conditions. The second study focused on verifying the overall performance of the breakwater system in terms of wave attenuation and impacts on nearshore wave-induced circulation. These investigations generated valuable information concerning innovative breakwater design and performance.