Canine calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis typically occurs as a mature-onset disease, and the features of juvenile-onset disease have not been previously reported.
The objective of this study was to identify patient and stone characteristics of juvenile dogs with CaOx urolithiasis compared to mature urolith-formers.
Information on 232 juvenile (≤ 1 year) and 39,093 mature (7-9 years) dogs with CaOx (≥ 70%) urolithiasis was obtained from submissions to the Minnesota Urolith Center between 2012 and 2016. Fisher’s exact tests were used to identify breeds overrepresented in the juvenile group, and chi-squared tests were performed to determine whether the sex, stone location (upper vs lower urinary tract) and salt type (monohydrate vs dihydrate) differed compared to the mature group.
English (OR = 8.6, P = 0.0070) and French (OR = 7.5, P = 0.012) Bulldogs were overrepresented in the juvenile group. While no difference in sex was observed between the juvenile and mature groups, all juvenile and > 90% of adult English and French Bulldogs were male. Stone location did not differ between juvenile and mature dogs, however < 2% of the stones in both groups were from the upper urinary tract. Juvenile dogs were more likely to form dihydrate stones compared to mature dogs (OR = 1.7, P < 0.001), although monohydrate were predominant in both groups (79% and 87%, respectively).
This study identified two related breeds at risk for juvenile CaOx urolithiasis. Inherited risk factors, particularly X chromosome mutations, should be investigated due to the strong breed and sex predispositions identified.
Small Animal Rotating Intern
University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine
Alexander originally hails from Brisbane, Australia. He gained his veterinary degree from the University of Queensland in 2016, before going onto complete small animal rotating internships in private practice and then at the University of Minnesota. Come August, he is due to start a small animal internal medicine residency at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Friday, June 15
4:15 PM – 4:30 PM
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