Insulin and IGF-1 metabolism might play a role in feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), aggravated by inflammation. This study investigated associations between echocardiography, morphology, cardiac and inflammatory markers, insulin and IGF-1 metabolism, in cats with asymptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (aHCM).
Fifty-one asymptomatic client-owned cats with diastolic inter-ventricular septum (IVSd) and/or left ventricular wall (LVWd) ≥ 6mm were included with informed consent from the owner. Examination of non-sedated, fasted cats included auscultation, bodyweight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and echocardiography (2D- and M-mode (M-)), with IVSd and LVWd measured basal, mid (LVWd, IVSd) and apical (IVSd), noted as maximum (max-), sum- and number of areas ≥ 6mm (n-)). Blood samples were analyzed for NT-proBNP, ultra-sensitive troponin-I (c-TnI), serum amyloid A (SAA), insulin, glucose and IGF-1. Statistical analysis (P < 0.05) investigated whether measures were significantly increased above cut-off values, effect of left atrial (LA-) remodeling and generalized versus focal hypertrophy, and correlations between measurements.
Cats had increased BCS (P = 0.013), insulin (P < 0.001), NT-proBNP (P = 0.001) and cTn-I (P < 0.001). Correlations were present between NT-proBNP and max-IVSd (P = 0.048), max-LVWd (P = 0.009), sum-LVWd (P = 0.012) and LA-remodeling (P = 0.030), between c-TnI and sum-IVSd (P = 0.039) and LA-remodeling (P = 0.009), and between SAA and sum-IVSd (P = 0.030) and n-IVSd (P = 0.048). Age was correlated with LA max (P = 0.026) and glucose (P = 0.027). BW and BCS were correlated with n-LVWd (P = 0.041), M-LVWd (P = 0.035), IGF-1 (P = 0.001), and insulin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.041) and IGF-1 (P = 0.021), respectively. Cats with LA remodeling (n = 27) had higher max-LVWd (P = 0.026) and sum-LVWd (P = 0.012), NT-proBNP (P = 0.017) and c-TnI (P = 0.006). Cats with generalized hypertrophy (n = 11) had higher max-IVSd (P = 0.003), sum-IVSd (P < 0.001), max-LVWd (P = 0.001), sum-LVWd (P < 0.001) and SAA (P = 0.018).
The results suggest a role for insulin, IGF-1 metabolism and inflammation in aHCM. Further research on the contribution to aHCM is needed.
Discover Program & Regulatory Science Manager
Royal Canin SAS
Ingrid van Hoek graduated cum laude as Doctor in Veterinary Medicine from Ghent University (Belgium) in 2004. Following graduation she started a PhD research on declining kidney function in hyperthyroid cats after treatment with radio-iodine. She joined Royal Canin after her PhD in 2009 as Discover Program Manager, and is currently Discover Program & Regulatory Science Manager at the Royal Canin Research Centre in France. She is an active member of the Nutrition & Analytical Sciences working group and the PARNUTS revision taskforce of the FEDIAF - European Pet Food Industry Trade Association. She is co-author of 50+ peer reviewed publications and international presented abstracts.
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