China and Inner Asia

Organized Panel Session

4 - From Self-Determination to Party-Determination: The Chinese Communist Party’s Approach to Eastern Inner Mongolia, 1945-1949

Friday, July 6
2:40 PM - 4:10 PM
Location: Rudraksha, Lower Ground Floor

After the collapse of Manchukuo in 1945, the Mongol elites established an independent regime in the former Manchukuo territory of eastern Inner Mongolia. The Mongols first pursued unification with Outer Mongolia through self-determination and then strove for high-level autonomy within a federal China. Eventually, however, those elites were absorbed into the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which incorporated the area into the newly founded People’s Republic of China as part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, which enjoyed merely nominal autonomous rights.


This paper examines the CCP’s approaches to eastern Inner Mongolia from 1945 to 1949, which successfully converted the former Manchukuo province from a secession-aspiring borderland to a locality under the CCP’s centralized leadership. The study utilizes documents from the Mongol regime, the CCP, the Soviet Union, and Outer Mongolia, as well as local newspapers, chronicles, and memoirs of relevant figures.


This paper argues that the Soviet Union played an important role in forcing the Mongol elites to give up their dream of secession from China and that the CCP then established a close cooperative relation with the Mongols by promising and temporarily allowing them high-level autonomy. After having established close cooperation, the CCP gradually expanded its influence over the Mongol regime through political, organizational, and military infiltrations. Once the CCP fully consolidated its control, the Mongol elites had no choice but to comply with the CCP’s agenda.

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4 - From Self-Determination to Party-Determination: The Chinese Communist Party’s Approach to Eastern Inner Mongolia, 1945-1949



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