Maps and Graphics for Blind and Partially Sighted People

Mapping for Visual Impairments

3705.4 - Analysis of adapted books and the use of Tactile Cartography in the public schools of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

Monday, July 3
5:10 PM - 5:30 PM
Location: Virginia C

Brazil makes use of a policy of educational inclusion, which is based on the insertion of impaired students in the regular school. This process results in the necessity of elaboration of didactic resources for this public.In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, visual impaired students, who attend public schools, receive books adapted for the visual impaired or low sighted people, so they are able to follow Geography classes in regular classes.This paper will pre-sent the result of the analysis of the aforementioned material. The research prioritized the analysis of maps, charts and illustrations contained in the Livro do Aluno (Student’s Book) of the 6th Grade, book 2, for it contains the basic concepts of the geographical language, such as orientation, geographical coordinates, map scales, map legends and time zone. The analysis was based in the principle of the graphical semiology as conceived by ALMEIDA (2015), who talks about the use of alternative materials to represent areas, lines and dots with different heights, textures and shapes. The results were obtained through interviews and surveys made with teacher and students, who somehow experience the specificities of the visual impaired public, as well as their opinion about the size and quality of the images and the comprehension of the subject presented by each representation (image). The adapted books do not bring all the information available in their original versions. We detected, for example, the absence of some of the exercises. Furthermore, it became evident that both seeing teachers and students do not have knowledge of braille, which obstructs their interaction with visual impaired students in the classroom. From the critical observations, we proposed an alternative adaptation to braille, for these new maps can also replace their enlarged version. Because they were built with colored materials, they can serve the different characteristics of low sighted students. The results showed that the use of dots for the representation of maps hampers, or even hinders, the comprehension of information, specially quantitative and arranged data. We used handcrafted techniques to adapt the book, since the materials used have low cost and can be easily found. In addition, the adapted book can be used as a mold for its reproduction using a Thermoform machine. Twenty-two different materials - among maps, charts and illustrations - were developed using these techniques and considering a specific methodology that can facilitate the work carried out by teachers. In practice, we achieved a meaningful teaching of Geography and Cartography to visual impaired students, to seeing students and teachers, besides the socialization of the acquired knowledge. Such experience proved the necessity of development of techniques and procedures for adaptation and implementation of such materials, which must respect the reality of both students and schools. However more resources and techniques there are, it is indispensable that the role of Cartography and the role of the Tactile Cartography in the professional development and formation of the Geography teacher are discussed.

Barbara Gomes Flaire Jordão

Master
Universidade de São Paulo

Master in geography in Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Bachelor and graduate in Geography from the Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"(UNESP). Geography teacher for high school and elementary school. Researcher in the field of teaching geography, representation of the geographical space, tactile cartography, visually impaired students and inclusive teaching .

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Carla Sena

PhD
UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL PAULISTA - UNESP

Graduated in Geography, MA and Ph.D. in Geography in University of São Paulo (2009). She is currently Assistant Professor Ph.D.from UNESP- Ourinhos, and Chair (2015-2019) of the ICA Commission on Cartography and Children. She has experience in geography, with emphasis on Geography teaching and training of teachers, mainly in the following themes: school and tactile cartography, geography education, special education and inclusion.

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Amy Lobben

professor
university of oregon

Amy Lobben is a professor in the department of geography at the university of oregon. She received her PhD in geography from mighigan state university. Her primary research and teaching interests lie in neurogeography, geospatial cognition, and accessibility. She co-runs the Spatial Computation, Cognition, and Complexity Lab and the Map by NorthWest (MxNW) group with colleague Chris Bone.

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