Cognitive Issues in Geographic Information Visualization

Perception of Topographic and Base Maps

4508.2 - How to design a cartographic continuum to help users to navigate between two topographic styles?

Tuesday, July 4
1:50 PM - 2:10 PM
Location: Maryland C

The last two decades, next to the traditional maps producers (National Mapping Agency of different countries), new maps producers gradually emerged: Google Maps, OpenStreetMap (OSM), Stamen, MapBox and so on. This diversification of maps producers leads naturally to the multiplication of cartographic abstractions with a particular visual appearance defined as a topographic style (Kent et Vujakovic, 2009 ; Beconyte, 2009 ; Jolivet, 2009 ; Christophe, 2012 ; Ory et al., 2015). These various cartographic abstractions are provided to users in geovisualization applications in order to respond to theirs uses (Roche, 2003 ; Griffin et Fabrikant, 2012 ; Coltekin et al., 2015) and needs (Lafay et al., 2015). In this context, one of the major challenges consists in proposing innovative visualization methods to smooth and improve the navigation between two different cartographic abstractions with various styles.
Our research purpose aims at creating a cartographic continuum, i.e. a set of intermediate maps enabling users to navigate between two topographic styles. In this work, we combine the models and results of two research works by Ory et al. (2015) and Hoarau and Christophe (2016). An important issue of this work is to provide framework to design a continuum composed of in-between cartographic abstractions mixing two topographic styles. Ory et al. (2015) formalize the concept of a topographic style as a cartographic family with a visual signature composed of graphic signs recognized by users. Moreover, Hoarau and Christophe (2016) propose a rendering method allowing to combine efficiently topographic maps and orthoimages by controlling the realism and abstraction levels. Their method allow to choose intermediate steps and design a cartographic continuum composed of in-between representations mixing topographic data and orthoimagery, including color interpolation between both sources. From the results of these two research works, we take up three different challenges to design successfully in-between cartographic abstractions. First, the two original topographic styles have to be recognized throughout the navigation in the cartographic continuum. Second, we aim at providing smooth and effective transitions between consecutive cartographic abstractions in the continuum ensuring continuity and smoothness during the navigation. Third, the readability has to be preserved for each in-between cartographic abstraction.
To reach these three goals, we propose three different sets of rules allowing to parameterize the cartographic continuum between two topographic styles. The first set of rules aims at preserving the graphic signs of visual signature in each in-between cartographic abstraction to allow users to recognize the original topographic styles. The second set of rules aims at interpolating efficiently colors of different cartographic themes from one style to another in order to provide smooth transitions along the cartographic continuum. For each cartographic theme, we define color constraints in order to ensure a linear transition from one topographic style to another. The third set of rules aims at preserving different kind of color relations between the different cartographic themes in each in-between cartographic abstraction in order to ensure their readability.
Ory et al. (2015) set up two user’s experiments to characterize the visual signature of two particular topographic styles: IGN-France and Swisstopo. From the results obtained, we have tested our approach on a 1:25000 cartographic vector dataset, which depicts a geographical space at the French-Swiss border: Thonon-les-bains. The legend specifications are defined with the SLD/SE standard. In-between cartographic abstractions have been designed to contain visual codes and guides well known by the users in order to improving the navigation between the two topographic styles.

Guillaume Touya

Senior Researcher
IGN France, LASTIG, COGIT team

Guillaume Touya is a senior researcher at the LASTIG, COGIT team, IGN France (the French mapping agency). He holds a PhD in GI science from Paris-Est University. His research interests focus on automated cartography, map generalization and volunteered geographic information. He currently leads the MapMuxing (https://mapmuxing .ign.fr) research project.

Presentation(s):

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Jérémie Ory

Phd in geographic information science
IGN-France, LaSTIG, COGIT team

Jérémie Ory holds a PhD in GIScience from Paris-Est University on the formalization of knowledge for topographic styles design and perception. He continues his research as a postdoc in COGIT Team (Cartography & GISciences) of LaSTIG Laboratory at IGN-France. His research work consists in evaluating the quality of cartographic continuums, regarding users needs and interactive tasks they should achieve

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Charlotte Hoarau

Researcher in Geovisualization
IGN-France, LaSTIG, COGIT team

Charlotte Hoarau is working as a researcher in the COGIT Team, LaSTIG, at IGN France, since 2009. Her PhD thesis introduces a method to design in-between cartographic representations forming a continuum between a map and an orthoimage. Her current research deals with map design and interactive geovisualization. She focuses on the use of rendering methods to control map styles, the enhancement of map interaction by multiplexing methods and the understanding of cognitive issues involved in map reading.

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Sidonie Christophe

Senior researcher in Geovisualization
Univ. Paris-Est, LASTIG COGIT, IGN, ENSG, F-94160 Saint-Mande, France

PhD Sidonie Christophe is a senior researcher in cartography and geovisualization, in the COGIT Team of the IGN-France. She is co-chair of the ICA Commission on Cognitive Issues in Geographic Information Visualization, and also co-chair of the ISPRS Commission on Geovisualization, Augmented and Virtual Reality. Her research works focus on knowledge formalization for map and geovis -design, -use and -cognition, in particular on personalization and user control on design.

Presentation(s):

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Sidonie Christophe

Senior researcher in Geovisualization
Univ. Paris-Est, LASTIG COGIT, IGN, ENSG, F-94160 Saint-Mande, France

PhD Sidonie Christophe is a senior researcher in cartography and geovisualization, in the COGIT Team of the IGN-France. She is co-chair of the ICA Commission on Cognitive Issues in Geographic Information Visualization, and also co-chair of the ISPRS Commission on Geovisualization, Augmented and Virtual Reality. Her research works focus on knowledge formalization for map and geovis -design, -use and -cognition, in particular on personalization and user control on design.

Presentation(s):

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