ICC Programming

Mapping place

5511.1 - The First Special Military Map Printed in Serbia

Wednesday, July 5
1:30 PM - 1:50 PM
Location: Hoover

This paper presents the first survey of the territory of the Kingdom of Serbia which was of enormous relevance to cartography and the map of the Balkans was created as a product of that survey. The history of cartography of Serbia in the 19th century reflects the gradual development of Serbian society, from the patriarchal to developed society formed in accordance with the European standards and inclusion in the European cartographic developments.
For practical and military reasons, geographic research of Serbia primarily developed within the army that acquired the most precious experience. 24 January 1876, the date of the establishment of the Geographical Department of the General Staff, is an important date for the Serbian cartography. This department was assigned the creation of the map of Serbia in large scale. In this manner the Serbian cartography began to develop within a specialized institutions. Despite the small number of staff, the Head of the Department with four officers, in cooperation with the officers from the General Staff, began to perform topographic surveys of the whole territory of the former Kingdom of Serbia. Based on this original survey in the scale 1:50,000 of the Geographical Department, the first special map was made in the scale 1:75,000.
The first survey of Serbia was performed by 29 officers, of which only 4 were constantly working, while other officers and surveyors spent only one or two years on the survey. Among others, the following were involved in the survey: Stevan Grujic, Professor of the Military Academy, Stepa Stepanovic and Petar Bojovic, lieutenants at the time, Captain Zivojin Misic and other prominent figures of Serbian history.
The Geographical Department engaged draftsmen, mostly young people, foreigners, since graphics was not studied in the Serbian schools at the time.
Before beginning the survey of Serbia, topographic and cartographic key were to be made, thus the General Staff adopted the cartographic and topographic key from the Vienna Geographical Institute which was amended according to the ethnographic characteristics of our country and published as official publication of the General Staff in 1881.
During the truce, at the initiative of the operational department of the Supreme Command, the officers surveyed the land occupied by the army in the form of sketches and itineraries or in the form of systematic survey, as much as it was possible with scarce resources. Thus, comprehensive survey material was collected and delivered to the Geographical Department for the use and processing for the purpose of creating the map of the Kingdom of Serbia. The surveyors were assigned by the Geographical Department in early summer 1881 and thus the topographic survey of Serbia commenced. The survey lasted until 1892, when the work on the land was completed. This paper uses the methods of descriptive analysis and in chronological order presents the complete process of survey and creation of the Special map of Serbia, as well as the reaction of scientific and general public after its publication in Belgrade in 1894.
This map is significant for cartographers since it marked the true entry of Serbian cartography into the European cartography and it contributed to a much better geographical understanding of Serbia. Moreover, it had an important role in subsequent historical events, especially in the Balkan wars and the First World War.

Jelena M. Glisovic

Head of Cartographic Collection
National Library of Serbia

Employment: 2012 – Present Head of Cartographic Collection, Special Collections Department, National Library of Serbia, Belgrade Responsibilities include:
collection development, identification and description, legal protection and digitisation of cartographic material and improvement of digital collections
2010 - 2012 Librarian, Special Collections Department, National Library of Serbia 2009 - 2010 Librarian, Faculty of Foreign Languages Library, Alfa University, Belgrade Education: 2012 - Present PhD Candidate, Modul Culture, Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade 2010 Master of Library Science, Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade Thesis: Digitisation and Librarianship, between copyright and freedom of access

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Robert Edsall

Geospatial Research and Development Scientist
Idaho National Laboratory

Rob is a geographic visualization specialist at the Idaho National Laboratory. There, he is responsible for designing and developing geographic and data analytic tools in the Homeland Security Division, applying visualization theory most frequently to the understanding of critical infrastructure of the United States. Much of this data is geographically explicit, though recently his team has been examining the representation (visually and in databases) for the complex interactions and dependencies among critical infrastructure assets and entities in the Nation. Additionally, he has been involved in the relationships between physical infrastructure and cyber security, helping analysts assess vulnerabilities of assets, institutions, and systems to cyber attacks.

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