Category: Child / Adolescent - Depression
Offspring of depressed parents are at a 3-fold risk of developing MDD, as compared to offspring for whom neither parent is depressed (Weissman, Warner, Wickramaratne, Moreau, & Olfson, 1997). According to Garber and Martin (2002), parental depression, altered parenting, and low self-esteem are key predictors of depression in adolescents. The current study examined dimensions of parenting (i.e., parental psychological control, acceptance) as potential moderators of the relation between parent depression and adolescent self-esteem in a sample of high-risk youth.
Participants (N = 316, 13-17 years old; M = 14.79, SD = 1.35) were part of a larger prevention trial conducted across four sites within the U.S. (Garber et al., 2009). Enrolled youth (58.5% female; 24.7% ethnic/racial minority) were offspring of parents with current or prior depressive disorders. They were randomized into one of 2 conditions: a 14-session group cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention or usual care.
Parents and youth completed assessments at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at a 20-month follow-up. Parent depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D; Radloff, 1977). Parenting style (i.e., psychological control and acceptance) was assessed using child-report on a shortened version of the Children’s Reports of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI; Schaefer, 1965). Self-esteem was assessed using youth self-report on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965).
A series of hierarchical regression analyses examined the predictive value of parent depression and parenting style on adolescent self-esteem, both the main effects and interactions. Results revealed that parental psychological control interacted with parent depression to significantly predict adolescent self-esteem (β =.214, p = .017). Additional analyses examined the impact of the intervention in the association between parent depression and parental psychological control. Intervention moderated the relation of parent depression and parenting style to predict adolescent self-esteem at post-treatment (β = .213, p = .013), and at the 20-month follow-up (β =.306, p = .004).
Overall, findings highlight the importance of considering parental factors in longitudinal patterns of self-esteem across childhood and adolescence. We also will examine sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., sex, race/ethnicity, age, parent education) and further compare group differences in intervention response. Findings may help identify parenting strategies that could foster adolescent self-esteem, especially in youth at-risk for depression.
Angela Wang– Research Coordinator, San Diego State University, San Diego, California
Argero Zerr– San Diego State University
Karen Schwartz– Doctoral Student, San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology
V. Robin Weersing– Professor, San Diego State University, San Diego, California
David Brent– University of Pittsburgh and Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Greg Clarke– Senior Investigator, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research
William Beardslee– Boston Children’s Hospital
Tracy Gladstone– Professor, Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts
Steven Hollon– Professor of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
Frances Lynch– Senior Investigator, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research
Giovanna Porta– Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Judy Garber– Professor, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology
Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College
Professor of Psychology and Human Development