Category: Health Psychology / Behavioral Medicine - Adult
Self-efficacy has been shown to be an important factor in the engagement of patients with chronic disease in self-management behaviors and in health outcomes overall. Positive and negative affect have been shown to also influence health outcomes, as well as self-efficacy; however, the relationship among these psychological health factors has not been elucidated. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationships among self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, and affect, and to evaluate the influence of these constructs on self-management behaviors in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Data used in analyses were collected from 150 HD patients who completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and dialysis-related self-management self-efficacy and behaviors. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and linear regression techniques. Results showed significant relationships between depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, and self-management in the predicted positive and negative directions. Regression models indicated that depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect influence patient self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = .34, p < .0001), and that positive affect is a significant unique predictor of self-management behaviors (adjusted R2 = .14, p < .001). Results indicate that affect and self-efficacy play an important role in self-management behavior, with depressive symptoms predicting self-efficacy and therefore playing a potentially proximal role in predicting self-management behaviors. This study provides valuable background for developing efficient and effective interventions to improve self-management and highlights the importance of psychological well-being in successful self-care in chronic disease. In particular, the potential for implementation of positive affect interventions as avenues for meaningful improvement in self-management is encouraging.